Picture of The Day

Picture of The Day
Suami-Suami Takut Istri - New Cast

Sunday, February 22, 2009

The History of Automobile

The men behind the over 100.000 patents that influenced the modern mobile....

1. Nicolaus Otto

One of the most important landmarks in engine design comes from Nicolaus Otto who in 1876 invented an effective gas motor engine. Nicolaus Otto built the first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine called the "Otto Cycle Engine," and when he completed his engine, he built it into a motorcycle.

Nicolaus Otto was born on June 14, 18
32 in Holzhausen, Germany. Otto's first occupation was as a traveling salesman selling tea, coffee, and sugar. He soon developed an interest in the new technologies of the day and began experimenting with building four-stroke engines (inspired by Lenoir's two-stroke gas-driven internal combustion engine). After meeting Eugen Langen, a technician and owner of a sugar factory, Otto quit his job, and in 1864, the duo started the world's first engine manufacturing company N.A. Otto & Cie (now DEUTZ AG, Köln). In 1867, the pair were awarded a Gold Medal at the Paris World Exhibition for their atmospheric gas engine built a year earlier. In May 1876, Nicolaus Otto built the first practical four-stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine. He continued to develop his four-stroke engine after 1876 and he considered his work finished after his invention of the first magneto ignition system for low voltage ignition in 1884.

Otto's patent was overturned in 1886 in favor of the patent granted to Alphonse Beau de Roaches for his four-stroke engine. However, Otto built a working engine while Roaches' design stayed on paper. On October 23, 1877, another patent for a gas-motor engine was issued to Nicolaus Otto, and Francis and William Crossley. Nicolaus Otto died at age 59, on January 26, 1891, in Cologne. Nicolaus Otto invented the gas motor engine. An engineer and experimenter, Nicolaus Otto invented the first practical alternative to the steam engine in 1876 -- the first four-stroke internal combustion engine. He called it the "Otto Cycle Engine," and as soon as he had completed his engine, he built it into a motorcycle.

2. Gottlieb Daimler

In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler (together with his design partner Wilhelm Maybach) took Nicolaus Otto's internal combustion engine a step further and patented what is generally recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine. Daimler's connection to Otto was a direct one; Daimler worked as technical director of Deutz Gasmotorenfabrik, which Nikolaus Otto co-owned in 1872.

There is some controversy as to who built the first motorcycle Otto or Daimler. The 1885 Daimler - Maybach engine was small, lightweight, fast, used a gasoline-injected carburetor, and had a vertical cylinder. The size, speed, and efficiency of the engine allowed for a revolution in car design. On March 8, 1886, Daimler took a stagecoach (made by Wilhelm Wimpff & Sohn) and adapted it to hold his engine, thereby designing the world's first four-wheeled automobile. gottlieb diamler 4 WheelerIn 1889, Daimler invented a V-slanted two cylinder, four-stroke engine with mushroom-shaped valves. Just like Otto's 1876 engine, Daimler's new engine set the basis for all car engines going forward. Also in 1889, Daimler and Maybach built their first automobile from the ground up, they did not adapt another purpose vehicle as had always been done previously.

The new Daimler automobile had a four-speed transmission and obtained speeds of 10 mph. Daimler founded the Daimler Motoren-Gesellschaft in 1890 to manufacture his designs. Eleven years later, Wilhelm Maybach designed the Mercedes. A few years later left Maybach left Daimler to set up his own factory for making engines for Zeppelin airships. In 1894, the first automobile race in the world was won by a car with a Daimler engine.

3. Karl Friedrich Benz

In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. On January 29, 1886, Benz received the first patent (DRP No. 37435) for a gas-fueled car. It was a three-wheeler; Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.

Benz & Company, the company started by the inventor, became the world's largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.
Karl Friedrich
Benz was born in 1844 in Baden Muehlburg, Germany (now part of Karlsruhe). He was the son of an engine driver. Benz attended the Karlsruhe grammar school and later the Karlsruhe Polytechnic University. In 1871, He founded his first company with partner August Ritter, the "Iron Foundry and Machine Shop" a supplier of building materials. Benz began his work on a two-stroke engine, in hopes of finding a new income. He received his first patent in 1879.

In 1883, he founded Benz & Company to produce industrial engines in Mannheim, Germany. He then began designing a "motor carriage", with a four-stroke engine (based on Nicolaus Otto's patent). Benz designed his engine (958cc, 0.75hp) and the body for the three-wheel vehicle with an electric ignition, differential gears, and water-cooling. The car was first driven in Mannheim in 1885. On January 29, 1886, he was granted a patent for his gas-fueled automo
bile (DRP 37435) and in July, he began selling his automobile to the public.

4. John Lambert

America's first gasoline-powered automobile was a three-wheel motor buggy - the 1891 Lambert car invented by John Lambert.

Later, after se
eing the 1895 Times-Herald race, John Lambert went on to produce four-wheel vehicles at his Buckeye Manufacturing plant. John Lambert was a very successful and prosperous businessman in Ohio City, who successfully tested and drove a three-wheeled, surrey-topped, gasoline-powered runabout of his own design.

5. The Duryea Brothers

America's first gasoline powered commercial car manufacturers were two brothers, Charles Duryea (1861-1938) and Frank Duryea. The brothers were bicycle makers who became interested in gasoline engines and automobiles. On September 20 1893, their first automobile was constructed and successfully tested on the public streets of Springfield, Massachusetts.

Charles Duryea founded the Duryea Motor Wagon Company in 1896, the first company to manufacture and sell gasoline powered vehicles. By 1896, the company had sold thirteen cars of the model Duryea, an expensive limousine, which remained in production into the 1920s. America's First Automobile Race At 8:55 a.m. on November 28, 1895, six motor cars left Chicago's Jackson Park for a 54 mile race to Evanston, Illinois and back through the snow. Number 5, piloted by inventor J. Frank Duryea, won the race in just over 10 hours at an average speed of about 7.3 miles per hour. The winner earned $2,000, the enthusiast who named the horseless vehicles "motorcycles" won $500, and the Chicago Times-Herald, sponsor of the race, declared, "Persons who are inclined to decry the development of the horseless carriage will be forced to recognize it as an admitted mechanical achievement, highly adapted to some of the most urgent needs of our civilization."

America's First Recorded Automobile Accident
In March 1896, Charles and Frank Duryea of Springfield, Mass., offer the
first commercial automobile: the Duryea motor wagon. Two months later, New York City motorist Henry Wells hits a bicyclist with his new Duryea. The rider suffers a broken leg, Wells spends a night in jail and the nation's first traffic accident is recorded."

6. Henry Ford

Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford was born July 30, 1863, on his family's farm in Dearborn, Michigan. From the time he was a young boy, Ford enjoyed tinkering with machines. Farm work and a job in a Detroit machine shop afforded him ample opportunities to experiment. He later worked as a part-time employee for the Westinghouse Engine Company. By 1896, Ford had constructed his first horseless carriage which he sold in order to finance work on an improved model. Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company in 1903, proclaiming, "I will build a car for the great multitude."

In October 1908, he did so, offering the Model T for $950. In the Model T's nineteen years of production, its price dipped as low as $280. Nearly 15,500,000 were sold in the United States alone. The Model T heralds the beginning of the Motor Age; the car evolved from luxury item for the well-to-do to essential transportation for the ordinary man.

Ford revolutionized manufacturing. By 1914, his Highland Park, Michigan plant, using innovative production techniques, could turn out a complete chassis every 93 minutes. This was a stunning improvement over the earlier production time of 728 minutes. Using a constantly-moving assembly line, subdivision of labor, and careful coordination of operations, Ford realized huge gains in productivity.
In 1914, Ford began paying his employees five dollars a day, nearly doubling the wages offered by other manufacturers. He cut the workday from nine to eight hours in order to co
nvert the factory to a three-shift workday.

Ford's mass-production techniques would eventually allow for the manufacture of a Model T every 24 seconds. His innovations made him an international celebrity. Ford's affordable Model T irrevocably altered American society. As more Americans owned cars, urbanization patterns changed. The United States saw the growth of suburbia, the creation of a national highway system, and a population entranced with the possibility of going anywhere anytime. Ford witnessed many of these changes during his lifetime, all the while personally longing for the agrarian lifestyle of his youth. In the years prior to his death on April 7, 1947, Ford sponsored the restoration of an idyllic rural town called Greenfield Village. On January 12, 1900, the Detroit Automobile Company released its first commercial automobile - a delivery wagon - designed by Henry Ford. This was Ford's second car design - his first design was the quadricycle built in 1896. On May 27, 1927, production ended for the Ford Model T - 15,007,033 units had been manufactured. On January 13, 1942, Henry Ford patented a plastic-bodied automobile - a car 30 percent lighter than metal cars.

In 1932, Henry Ford introduced his last engineering triumph: his "en block", or one piece, V-8 engine. The T in Model T Henry Ford and his engineers used the first 19 letters of the alphabet to name their automobiles, although some of the cars were never sold to public.

7. Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Diesel was born in Paris in 1858. His parents were Bavarian immigrants. Rudolf Diesel was educated at Munich Polytechnic. After graduation he was employed as a refrigerator engineer. However, he true love lay in engine design. Rudolf Diesel designed many heat engines, including a solar-powered air engine.

In 1893, he published a paper describing an engine with combustion within a cylinder, the internal combustion engine. In 1894, he filed for a patent for his new invention, dubbed the diesel engine. Rudolf Diesel was almost killed by his engine when it exploded. However, his engine was the first that proved that fuel could be ignited without a spark. He operated his first successful engine in 1897.
In 1898, Rudolf Diesel was granted patent #608,845 for an "internal combustion engine" the Diesel engine.

The diesel engines of today are refined and improved versions of Rudolf Diesel's original concept. They are often used in submarines, ships, locomotives, and large trucks and in electric generating plants. Though best known for his invention of the pressure-ignited heat engine that bears his name, Rudolf Diesel was also a well-respected thermal engineer and a social theorist. Rudolf Diesel's inventions have three points in common: They relate to heat transference by natural physical processes or laws; they involve markedly creative mechanical design; and they were initially motivated by the inventor's concept of sociological needs. Rudolf Diesel originally conceived the diesel engine to enable independent craftsmen and artisans to compete with large industry. At Augsburg, on August 10, 1893, Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10-foot iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time.

Rudolf Diesel spent two more years making improvements and in 1896 demonstrated another model with the theoretical efficiency of 75 percent, in contrast to the ten percent efficiency of the steam engine. By 1898, Rudolf Diesel was a millionaire. His engines were used to power pipelines, electric and water plants, automobiles and trucks, and marine craft, and soon after were used in mines, oil fields, factories, and transoceanic shipping.

8. Charles Kettering

"The world hates change, but it is the only thing that has brought progress." - Charles Kettering

The first electrical ignition system or electric starter motor for cars was invented by GM engineers Clyde Coleman and Charles Kettering. The self starting ignition was first installed in a Cadillac on February 17, 1911. The invention of the electric starter motor by Charles Kettering eliminated the need for hand cranking. United States Patent #1,150,523, was issued to Charles Kettering of Dayton, Ohio in 1915.

Charles Kettering became the founder of Delco (Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company). He also went on to invent: other automotive lighting and ignition systems, lacquer finishes for cars, antilock fuels, leaded gasoline, and an electric cash register.
Freon In 1928, Thomas Midgley, Jr. and Charles Kettering invented a "Miracle Compound" called Freon. Freon is now infamous for greatly adding to the depletion of the earth's ozone shield.


Friday, February 20, 2009

Survival Guide

This guide, taken from the U.S. Army Survival Manual, is based entirely on the keyword "SURVIVAL." The letters in this word can help you in your actions in any survival situation. Whenever faced with a survival situation, remember the word "SURVIVAL."

The following sections expand on the meaning of each letter of the word "survival." Click on the link to each section to study further and remember what each letter signifies because you may some day have to make it work for you.

S = Size Up the Situation

U = Use All Your Senses, Undue Haste Makes Waste

R = Remember Where You Are

V = Vanquish Fear and Panic
I = Improvise
V = Value Living
A = Act Like the Natives
L = Live by Your Wits, But for Now, Learn Basic Skills

Below is further information related to "SURVIVAL"....

S = Size Up the Situation
If you are in a combat situation, find a place where you can conceal yourself from the enemy. Remember, security takes priority. Use your senses of hearing, smell and sight to get a feel for the battlefield. What is the enemy doing? Advancing? Holding in place? Retreating? You will have to consider what is developing on the battlefield when you make your survival plan.

Size Up Your Surroundings

Determine the pattern of the area. Get a feel for what is going on around you. Every environment, whether forest, jungle or desert, has a rhythm or pattern. This rhythm or pattern includes animal and bird noises and movements and insect sounds. It may also include enemy traffic and civilian movements.

Size Up Your Physical Condition

The pressure of the battle you were in or the trauma of being in a survival situation may have caused you to overlook wounds you received. Check your wounds and give yourself first aid. Take care to prevent further bodily harm. For instance, in any climate, drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration. If you are in a cold or wet climate, put on additional clothing to prevent hypothermia.

Size Up Your Equipment

Perhaps in the heat of battle or due to accident, you lost or damaged some of your equipment. Check to see what equipment you have and what condition it is in.
Now that you have sized up your situation, surroundings, physical condition and equipment, you are ready to make your survival plan. In doing so, keep in mind your basic physical needs — water, food and shelter.

U = Use All Your Senses, Undue Haste Makes Waste
You may make a wrong move when you react quickly without thinking or planning. That move may result in your capture or death. Don't move just for the sake of taking action.
Consider all aspects of your situation (size up your situation) before you make a decision and a move. If you act in haste, you may forget or lose some of your equipment. In your haste, you may also become disoriented so that you don't know which way to go. Plan your moves. Be ready to move out quickly without endangering yourself, especially if the enemy is near you. Use all your senses to evaluate the situation. Note sounds and smells. Be sensitive to temperature changes. Be observant.

R = Remember Where You Are
Spot your location on your map and relate it to the surrounding terrain. This is a basic principle that you must always follow. If there are other persons with you, make sure they also know their location. Always know who in your group, vehicle or aircraft has a map and compass. If that person is killed, you will have to get the map and compass from him. Pay close attention to where you are and to where you are going. Do not rely on others in the group to keep track of the route. Constantly orient yourself. Always try to determine, as a minimum, how your location relates to —
* The location of enemy units and controlled areas. * The location of friendly units and controlled areas. * The location of local water sources (especially important in the desert). * Areas that will provide good cover and concealment. This information will allow you to make intelligent decisions when you are in a survival and/or evasion situation.

V = Vanquish Fear and Panic

The greatest enemies in a combat, survival and/or evasion situation are fear and panic. If uncontrolled, they can destroy your ability to make an intelligent decision. They may cause you to react to your feelings and imagination rather than to your situation. They can drain your energy and thereby cause other negative emotions. Previous survival and evasion training and self-confidence will enable you to vanquish fear and panic.

I = Improvise
In the United States, we have items available for all our needs. Many of these items are cheap to replace when damaged. Our easy come, easy go, easy-to-replace culture makes it unnecessary for us to improvise. This inexperience in improvisation can be an enemy in a survival situation. Learn to improvise. Take a tool designed for a specific purpose and see how many other uses you can make of it. Learn to use natural objects around you for different needs. An example is using a rock for a hammer. No matter how complete a survival kit you have with you, it will run out or wear out after a while. Your imagination must take over when your kit wears out.

V = Value Living

All of us were born kicking and fighting to live but we have become used to the soft life. We have become creatures of comfort. We dislike inconveniences and discomforts. What happens when we are faced with a survival situation with its stresses, inconveniences and discomforts? This is when the will to live — placing a high value on living — is vital. The experience and knowledge you have gained through life and your training will have a bearing on your will to live. Stubbornness, a refusal to give in to problems and obstacles that face you, will give you the mental and physical strength to endure.

A = Act Like the Natives

The natives and animals of a region have adapted to their environment. To get a feel of the area, watch how the people go about their daily routine. When and what do they eat? When, where and how do they get their food? When and where do they go for water? What time do they usually go to bed and get up? These actions are particularly important to you when you are trying to avoid capture. Animal life in the area can also give you clues on how to survive. Animals also require food, water and shelter. By watching them, you can find sources of water and food.


Animals cannot serve as an absolute guide to what you can eat and drink. Many animals eat plants that are toxic to humans. Keep in mind that the reaction of animals can reveal your presence to the enemy. If in a friendly area, one way you can gain rapport with the natives is to show interest in their tools and how they get food and water. By studying the people, you learn to respect them; you often make valuable friends; and, most importantly, you learn how to adapt to their environment and increase your chances of survival.

L = Live by Your Wits, But for Now, Learn Basic Skills
Without training in basic skills for surviving and evading on the battlefield, your chances of living through a combat, survival and/or evasion situation are slight. Learn these basic skills now — not when you are headed for or are in the battle, or en route for an excursion to a remote or harsh environment. How you decide to equip yourself before deployment will impact on whether or not you survive. You need to know about the environment to which you are going and you must practice basic skills geared to that environment. For instance, if you are going to a desert, you need to know how to get water in the desert. Practice basic survival skills during all training programs and exercises. Survival training reduces fear of the unknown and gives you self-confidence. It teaches you to live by your wits.


Develop a survival pattern that lets you beat the enemies of survival. This survival pattern must include food, water, shelter, fire, first aid and signals placed in order of importance. For example, in a cold environment, you would need a fire to get warm; a shelter to protect you from the cold, wind and rain or snow; traps or snares to get food; a means to signal friendly aircraft; and first aid to maintain health. If injured, first aid has top priority no matter what climate you are in. Change your survival pattern to meet your immediate physical needs as the environment changes. As you read the rest of this manual, keep in mind the keyword "SURVIVAL" and the need for a survival pattern.


Saturday, February 14, 2009

Nano Ink 'Tattoo' Could Monitor Diabetes

Controlling your diabetes could make you look tough. A special tattoo ink that changes color based on glucose levels inside the skin is under development by Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratories.

The injectable nanotech ink could eventually free diabetics from painful blood glucose tests.
"It doesn't have to be a large, over-the-shoulder kind of tattoo," said Heather Clark, a scientist at Draper. "It would only have to be a few millimeters in size and wouldn't have to go as deep as a normal tattoo." Clark and her colleagues didn't set out to create a glucose-detecting ink. "At first I didn't even think it was possible," said Clark.

Originally the scientists developed a sodium-sensitive ink to monitor heart health, advancing basic knowledge of electrolytes in the body, or to ensure athletes are properly hydrated.
Monitoring a single ion is easier than a complex molecule made of 24 atoms however. After speaking with a colleague, Clark decided to give glucose detection a try.

She started with the basic three-part system to detect sodium and modified to detect glucose. The nano ink particles are tiny, squishy spheres about 120 nanometers across. Inside the sphere are three parts: the glucose detecting molecule, a color-changing dye, and another molecule that mimics glucose. When the particles are dissolved in water they look like food coloring, says Clark.
The three parts continuously move around the inside the hydrophobic orb.

When they approach the surface, the glucose detecting molecule either grabs a molecule of glucose or the mimicking molecule.
If the molecules mostly latch onto glucose, the ink appears yellow. If glucose levels are low, the molecule latches onto the glucose mimic, turning the ink purple. A healthy level of glucose has a "funny orangey," color, according to Clark. The sampling process repeats itself every few milliseconds.

Time measured in milliseconds is much faster than then most current blood testing systems, and certainly less painful. But is it as accurate?

Glucose levels in the skin, where the ink would be injected subcutaneously, might not necessarily reflect the more critical measurement of glucose levels in the blood.

Some studies show that skin glucose levels can lag up to 20 minutes behind blood glucose levels, while other show a much faster change.
"It's an interesting question," said Clark. "It's one that we might even be able to help answer."

Even if there is a significant lag time between blood and skin glucose levels, a small tattoo, in the several square millimeter range, according to Clark, would let diabetics know if an abnormally high or low reading was either returning to a normal level or getting worse.
Initial tests of the sodium-detecting ink in mice have had "spectacular" results, according to Clark.

Testing the glucose monitoring nanotech ink in mice could begin by the end of this month.
Consumers will have to wait. Clark estimates that it will be at least two years before the necessary human testing is complete to bring the ink to the market.

Robert Rubin, a professor at Harvard Medical School, is excited by Clark's work at Draper.
"This will give me a great short cut for understanding what is happening inside the body," said Rubin.


Valentine's Day in Economic Recession

Even as the economy crumbles, today's relatively tame Valentine's Day celebration is expected to generate some $14.7 billion in retail sales in the United States

The average U.S. consumer is expected to spend $102.50 on Valentine's Day gifts, meals, and entertainment, according to an annual U.S. National Retail Federation survey—down from $122.98 per person in 2008.

"If anything, [people] are probably scaling back on more discretionary purchases, so that they can feel comfortable spending on Valentine's Day," said Ellen Davis, the federation's vice president.

About 92 percent of married Americans with children will spend the most money on their spouses: $67.22.

The remainder goes to Valentine's Day gifts for kids, friends, co-workers, and pets, according to the survey.

Valentine's Day Cards

Greeting cards, as usual, will be the most common Valentine's Day purchases. Fifty-eight percent of American consumers plan to send at least one, according to the survey.

The Greeting Card Association, an industry trade group, says 190 million Valentine's Day cards will be sent. And that figure does not include the hundreds of millions of cards schoolchildren exchange.

"Giving your sweetheart or someone [else] a Valentine's Day card is a deep-seated cultural tradition in the United States," said association spokesperson Barbara Miller. "We don't see that changing."

The first Valentine's Day card was sent in 1415 from France's Duke of Orléans to his wife when he was a prisoner in the Tower of London following the Battle of Agincourt, according to the association.

Valentine's Day cards—mostly handwritten notes—gained popularity in the U.S. during the Revolutionary War. Mass production started in the early 1900s.

Hallmark got in the game in 1913, according to spokesperson Sarah Kolell. Since then—perhaps not coincidentally—the market for Valentine's Day cards has blossomed beyond lovers to include parents, children, siblings, and friends.

Valentine's Day Candy: Cash Cow

An estimated 45.8 percent of U.S. consumers will exchange Valentine's Day candy, according to the retail federation survey—adding up to a sweet billion dollars in sales, the National Confectioners Association says.

About 75 percent of that billion is from sales of chocolate, which has been associated with romance at least since Mexico's Aztec Empire, according to Susan Fussell, a spokesperson with the association.

Fifteenth-century Aztec emperor Moctezuma I believed "eating chocolate on a regular basis made him more virile and better able to serve his harem," she said.

But there's nothing chocolaty about Valentine's Day's most iconic candy: those demanding, chalky little hearts emblazoned "BE MINE," "KISS ME," "CALL ME."

About eight billion candy hearts will be made in 2009, the association says—enough to stretch from Rome, Italy, to Valentine, Arizona, and back again 20 times.


Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Marketing and Public Relation – Old and New Paradigm

Below are the old and new of Marketing and Public Relation Paradigm

Old Paradigm

  • Marketing simply means advertising and branding
  • Advertising needed to appeal to the masses
  • Advertising relied on interrupting them to get them to pay attention to the message
  • Advertising was one-way: company to the customer
  • Advertising was exclusively about selling products
  • Advertising was deemed the most important component of advertising
  • It was more important for the ad agency to win advertising awards than for clients to win new customers
  • Advertising and PR were separate discipline run for different people with separate goals, strategies and measurement criteria
  • The only way to get link was through the media
  • Companies communicated to journalist through press release
  • Nobody saw the actual press release except a handful of reporters and editors
  • Companies had to have significant news before they were allowed to make a press release
  • Jargon was OK because the journalist all understood it
  • You weren’t supposed to send a release unless it included quotes from third parties, such customer’s analyst and experts
  • The only way buyers would learn about the press release content was if the media wrote a story about it
  • The only way to measure the success of press release was through ‘clip books’ which noted each time the media design to pick up on a company’s release

New Paradigm

  • Marketing is more than just advertising
  • PR is more than just a mainstream media audience
  • You are what you publish
  • People want authenticity, not spin
  • People want participation not propaganda
  • Instead of causing one-way interruption, marketing is about delivering content at the precise moment your audience needs it
  • Marketers must shift their thinking from marketing to the mainstream masses to a strategy of reaching vast numbers of under-served audience via the web
  • PR is not about your boss seeing your company in TV. It’s about your business seeing your company in the web
  • Marketing is not about your agency winning awards. It’s about your company winning business
  • The internet has made public relations public again, after years of almost exclusive focus on media
  • Companies must drive people into the purchasing process with great online content
  • Blogs, podcast, e-books, news releases and other forms of online content let organizations communicate directly with buyers in a form they appreciate
  • On the web, the lines between marketing and PR have blurred


The Theory of Music Therapy

Music therapy is not about helping people with their music in the way that speech and language therapist is concerned with alleviating barriers to the 'normal' expression of speech and language. Nor is it about developing musical skill nor teaching people to play an instrument, although this factor maybe an unintentional by-product of the therapeutic process. Therapy itself implies the concept of change and many definitions of music therapy stress the development of aims and the client-therapist relationship: therapy is communicative, social, and interactive. One end emphasizes the music, whilst the other emphasizes the relationship. Each therapist's position on the continuum is influenced by training, personal philosophy, and the therapeutic orientation.

In some countries psychologist, psychiatrist, and other clinicians use music as part of the therapy. For example: the use of music as a form of relaxation to support a more verbally-based psychotherapy, or in dentistry and surgery. In other country the music itself is central ingredients, with changes in the music often being mirrored in changes within the client-therapist relationship. Any definition must therefore address the music and the therapeutic objectives. Furthermore, there are responsibilities for therapist to serve clients by attending to, listening to, and being vigilant towards them. In the end, one possible definition that summarizes these strands is that: Music therapy is the use of sounds and music within an evolving relationship between child or adult and therapist to support and encourage physical, mental, social, and emotional well-being.


Saturday, February 7, 2009

Toxic in Your Console...Beware !!

With some differences in the amount of hazardous chemicals and materials, all three manufacturers failed the green electronics test set by Greenpeace. The report reveals, for both the Xbox 360 and PS3, some materials contained very high levels of phthalates that are not permitted in components of toys or childcare articles sold in the EU. One of the phthalates, DEHP, is known to interfere with sexual development in mammals – including humans - especially in males. The other phthalate, DiNP, found only in Xbox 360, is prohibited from use in toys and childcare articles if children can place them in their mouth (2).

Whether game consoles are classified as toys or not, they can still contain hazardous chemicals and materials that could harm humans. The technology is available for the manufacturers to design out toxics and produce greener game consoles now,” said Dr. Kevin Brigden, Greenpeace Science Unit.

All game consoles tested positive for various hazardous chemicals; for example, high levels of bromine were found in the components of all three, with the highest by weight levels of 13.8% and 12.5% in the PS3 and the Wii respectively. But the tests also show that each of the manufacturers has avoided or reduced uses of individual hazardous substances in certain materials within their consoles. In the Nintendo Wii, beryllium alloys were not identified in electrical contacts, and the use of PVC and phthalates was found to be limited. At the same time, the PS3 included examples of “bromine - free” circuit boards, and the Xbox 360 had lower usage of brominated materials within housing materials.

Our test clearly shows that a greener game console is possible; manufacturers just need to look “inside the box” of the competition to see which of their own dirty components can be replaced with toxic free materials.” said Casey Harrell, Greenpeace International Toxics Campaigner.

The game consoles market is one of the fastest growing in consumer electronics with over 60 million sold and 14 percent growth last year (3). They not only contain hazardous chemicals but also contribute to the fastest growing type of waste – ewaste. Discarded game consoles are often dumped and end up in unsafe and dirty recycling yards in developing countries, harming the environment and the health of workers.

Source: Greenpeace


Thursday, February 5, 2009

Travel to Bali, Visit Kerambitan

When you travel to bali, don't forget to visit one of the beautiful place located in Tabanan residence. It is Kerambitan Vilage.

Kerambitan is located six km. southwest of Tabanan, and is a small agricultural district full of green rice fields. The most important village here is also called Kerambitan, known for its old beautiful buildings, as well as traditional dance and music, wood- and stone carvings. The name Kerambitan is probably derived from the Sanskrit word "karawitan", which means "art, music and dance".

Even Kerambitan is a “virgin” where there is no villas, hotels, or cafe's like the other places, it has many exotic view such as beautiful green race fields and terraces, nature live, beach (it has 2 beaches), palaces, and traditional dance and music. On a clear day you can see the mighty Batukau mountain.

Kerambitan also has its own unique dance and music. Best known is maybe "Tektekan", a Tektekan orchestra from here is believed to have magical powers.

Tektekan is more like a procession than a dance, a group of men carrying bamboo split drums and giant cowbells around their necks play to scare away evil spirits whenever a drought, epidemic or pestilence hits the village. Finally the entire orchestra falls into trance, and armed with keris knives they attack the evil witch Rangda. Best time to see a tektekan is during exorcism, the day before Nyepi (the Balinese new year), other special occasions or at the arrival of a large group of tourists. At the start and end of a tektekan the blood of a chicken or duck has to be sacrificed.

One of the beautiful old buildings in KerambitanKerambitan is a former seat of a branch of Tabanan's royal family; Arya Kenceng. Several old residences do still exist, as well as two nicely restored palaces from the 17th century; Puri Anyar and Puri Agung Kerambitan. The royal descendants still inhabit the buildings. Identical twin grandsons, Anak Agung Ngurah Oka Silagunadha or "Pak Oka", and Anak Agung Rai Giri Gunadhi or "Pak Rai" of the late king preside over the palaces. The buildings are now used for dance, music and wedding ceremonies. It is possible to spend the night in the palaces, but you should book in advance.

In Puri Agung, the largest palace, you can enjoy peaceful gardens and several charming buildings covered by Chinese and Dutch porcelain. There is a temple here with family graves, one for every generation, also covered by porcelain.

Puri Anyar Kerambitan as one of Balinese Palace is a centre of preservation and development of Balinese culture. This Palace lies not so far from the beach and surrounded by Balinese village (kampong). The Palace regularly performs Balinese Dances and entertainment for its guests. Besides Balinese Dances, you can also witness the special atmosphere of daily activities of Balinese people around the village.

In the south and southeast, you will find Pasut beach and Klating beach. You could see the beautifull sunset in these place.

Kerambitan it self not as famous as other tourist's destination in Bali such as Kuta, Sanur, Ubud or many other places. However, several international celebrities have visited the palace and have their picture, like King Hussein, Kurt Waldheim, David Bowie and even the Rolling Stones front man, Mick Jagger, have visited this village with his wife Jerry Hall when they got just married in Bali at 1990.


Medical Insurance

Medical insurance is more than just safeguard of your health - it also prevents you from extra expenses. Bills from medical institutions even for situations not threatening your life can lead to the fail of your finances. Health insurance also aids to maintain healthy people. American College of Physicians states that uninsured people who are likely to have deadly or serious diseases like pancreatic or breast cancer can be diagnosed by regular inspections. Thus, uninsured persons have fewer chances to get disease-prevention service than insured ones, their risk of death raises to 50 percent.

Health insurance can significantly reduce your expenses as most part of medical compensations is divided between an insured person and a medical care provider. So-called "network discounts" are set by medical organizations and insurance companies, nevertheless the price for insured persons is always lower than prices paid by uninsured persons.

Who Risks to Be Uninsured

Do you think you can risk and live with no health insurance? Learn the statistics in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on Women's Health and the report of MSNBC.com: the number of uninsured Americans has increased to over 44 million people - the majority of them being from working families.Youth aged from 19 to 29 are the largest group with no medical insurance. Insurers call them "young invincibles" as they think their youth can protect them someway. Nonetheless, life is rather sever and doesn't protect from illnesses or incidents, and without having affordable health insurance young people can suddenly appear with large medical expenses.

Women without medical insurance represent another huge group of Americans - more than 16 million. They suffer from diseases and damages more often as they use to spend much time trying to use their own methods of treatment. Majority of health insurance institutions use prophylactic measures like gynecological and breast inspection that could prevent many serious female diseases.

The absence of affordable health insurance can even lead to death as persons without medical insurance usually die earlier than those with insurance, often because they don't pass preventive medical care.

Medical debts can quickly cause financial crisis. In compliance with the latest research of Harvard University, nearly 50 percent of all bankruptcies were partly caused by medical debts. Other research showed that over 25 percent of those who took part in the survey had different financial problems because of extra medical expenses.

Consider the cost of not having health insurance. If you are involved in an accident on your way to work, or contract a serious illness, you have to pay the hospital bills from your own pocket. This also means that you have to pay a deposit before admittance to private hospitals. If your spouse or children get seriously ill or hurt, the medical costs can lead to a total depletion of your savings. It may even cause bankruptcy. Another reason is that your family will have to settle for public health care facilities, and wait in line with hundreds of other patients. Apart from that, you still have to pay for expensive operations that are not covered under public health care.

Reasons why you cannot afford not to have medical insurance:

  • Late diagnosis of serious diseases, and as a consequence, higher risk of mortality.
  • Workers and their families that are not insured don't go for regular medical check-ups.
  • Many persons, who lack health insurance, don't go to doctors, or make use of prescriptions. This means that people settle for over the counter medicine, even in cases where more advanced medication are needed.
  • A large proportion of uninsured people use the emergency care as their only medical facility. This indicates that injuries or illnesses are only medically treated when the conditions become critical.
  • Higher mortality rate in cases of diabetes.
  • Large medical bills that cannot be paid. This in turn may lead to unwanted lifestyle changes.
  • Hospitalization for conditions that could have been avoided, if proper and timely medical care was given.


Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Segitiga Senen

Prapatan atau Segitiga Senen yang diabadikan tahun 1956 atau 51 tahun lalu memperlihatkan betapa semrawutnya lalu lintas di kala itu, yang hingga kini belum dapat dibenahi secara baik. Sungguh kasihan polisi yang berdiri di bawah tugu harus mengatur lalu lintas hanya dengan tangannya. Lampu lalu-lintas belum dikenal kala itu, dan baru dimulai akhir 1960-an. Sementara istilah ‘damai’ antara polisi dan pengendara yang kini bukan lagi rahasia umum juga masih sangat jarang.

Nama Senen diambil dari nama pasar, yang pada awal berdirinya pada 30 Agustus 1735 atau 272 tahun lalu, hari pasar jatuh pada tiap hari Senin. Seperti terlihat pada rumah-rumah Cina dengan atap gentengnya yang runcing mendominasi Pasar Senen, meniru gaya dari negeri leluhurnya. Karena daerah sekitar Pasar Senen sebagian besar penduduknya keturunan Cina. Dan memang merekalah penghuni pertama Pasar Senen. Karena itu sebelum tahun 1960-an ada sejumlah jalan yang berbau Cina. Seperti Gang Tjapgokeng (tjago = 15) (keng = kamar). Dinamakan demikian karena dahulunya terdapat rumah dengan 15 pintu yang para penghuninya adalah Cina perantauan. Di sini juga terdapat Gang Wangseng dari nama seorang letnan Cina Tan Wang Seng.

Pada masa pemerintahan Bung Karno itu, becak ikut mendominasi jalan raya dan operasionalnya tidak dibatasi termasuk di Merdeka Utara dekat Istana Merdeka. Mobil-mobil yang ketika itu buatan Amerika dan Eropa , sopirnya sangat jengkel terhadap pengemudi si roda tiga karena keberaniannya menyilap tanpa memperhitungkan keselamatan penumpang. Sementara di antara kendaraan bermotor terlihat oplet ’si Doel’ yang oleh orang Jakarta disebut ostin. Karena kendaraan yang kini digantikan oleh mikrolet itu berasal dari mobil merek Austin yang didesain sebagai angkutan penumpang. Mobil-mobil yang berseliweran juga besar-besar dibandingkan buatan Jepang. Tentu saja boros BBM. Tapi untungnya harga BBM ketika itu masih terjangkau pengusaha kecil.

Gedung yang berada di tengah-tengah kini sudah tidak terdapat lagi dan menjadi Atrium Senen sebagai pertokoan yang megah. Demikian juga gedung dan toko diseberangnya sudah menjadi mal dan pertokoan modern. Sebagian jalan raya Senen juga sudah menghilang dengan dibangunnya fly over.

Pada awal 1950-an dan 60-an Pasar Senen merupakan tempat berkumpulnya para seniman Senen pada malam hari mulai pukul 20.00 sampai menjelang subuh. Pasar Senen sejak saat itu berdenyut terus selama 24 jam. Mulai menjelang malam di sini terdapat ‘bursa kueh’ yang pembelinya bukan hanya dari Jabodetabek, tapi juga dari Cianjur dan Sukabumi. Kalau kita membeli kue di kantin-kantin yang cukup mewah, banyak yang berasal dari pasar Senen.
Pada 1950-an dan 60-an keamanan di Pasar Senen terjamin karena dikuasai oleh Cobra suatu organisasi di bawah pimpinan tokoh Betawi, Kapten Sjafi’ie dari Komando Militer Kota Besar Djakarta Raja (KMKBDR). Anggota Cobra adalah bekas militer yang setelah penyerahan kedaulatan banyak yang tidak mendapat tempat di TNI. Mereka kemudian dihimpun dalam Cobra dan menjaga keamanan Ibu Kota. Kala itu para preman di Jakarta tidak ada yang berani terhadap Cobra.



Betawi Oktober 1893. Rakyat Betawi di kampung-kampung tengah berkabung. Dari mulut ke mulut mereka mendengar si Pitung atau Bang Pitung meninggal dunia, setelah tertembak dalam pertarungan tidak seimbang dengan kompeni. Bagi warga Betawi, kematian si Pitung merupakan duka mendalam. Karena ia membela rakyat kecil yang mengalami penindasan pada masa penjajahan Belanda. Sebaliknya, bagi kompeni sebutan untuk pemerintah kolonial Belanda pada masa itu, dia dilukiskan sebagai penjahat, pengacau, perampok, dan entah apa lagi.
Jagoan kelahiran Rawa Belong, Jakarta Barat, ini telah membuat repot pemerintah kolonial di Batavia, termasuk gubernur jenderal. Karena Bang Pitung merupakan potensi ancaman keamanan dan ketertiban hingga berbagai macam strategi dilakukan pemerintah Hindia Belanda untuk menangkapnya hidup atau mati. Pokoknya Pitung ditetapkan sebagai orang yang kudu dicari dengan status penjahat kelas wahid di Betawi.

Bagaimana Belanda tidak gelisah, dalam melakukan aksinya membela rakyat kecil Bang Pitung berdiri di barisan depan. Kala itu Belanda memberlakukan kerja paksa terhadap pribumi termasuk ‘turun tikus’. Dalam gerakan ini rakyat dikerahkan membasmi tikus di sawah-sawah disamping belasan kerja paksa lainnya. Belum lagi blasting (pajak) yang sangat memberatkan petani oleh para tuan tanah.

Si Pitung, yang sudah bertahun-tahun menjadi incaran Belanda, berdasarkan cerita rakyat, mati setelah ditembak dengan peluru emas oleh schout van Hinne dalam suatu penggerebekan karena ada yang mengkhianati dengan memberi tahu tempat persembunyiannya. Ia ditembak dengan peluru emas oleh schout (setara Kapolres) van Hinne karena dikabarkan kebal dengan peluru biasa. Begitu takutnya penjajah terhadap Bang Pitung, sampai tempat ia dimakamkan dirahasiakan. Takut jago silat yang menjadi idola rakyat kecil ini akan menjadi pujaan.
Si Pitung, berdasarkan cerita rakyat (folklore) yang masih hidup di masyarakat Betawi, sejak kecil belajar mengaji di langgar (mushala) di kampung Rawa Belong. Dia, menurut istilah Betawi, ‘orang yang denger kate’. Dia juga ‘terang hati’, cakep menangkap pelajaran agama yang diberikan ustadznya, sampai mampu membaca (tilawat) Alquran. Selain belajar agama, dengan H Naipin, Pitung –seperti warga Betawi lainnya–, juga belajar ilmu silat. H Naipin, juga guru tarekat dan ahli maen pukulan.

Suatu ketika di usia remaja –sekitar 16-17 tahun, oleh ayahnya Pitung disuruh menjual kambing ke Pasar Tanah Abang, Jakarta Pusat. Dari kediamannya di Rawa Belong dia membawa lima ekor kambing naik gerobak. Ketika dagangannya habis dan hendak pulang, Pitung dibegal oleh beberapa penjahat pasar. Mulai saat itu, dia tidak berani pulang ke rumah. Dia tidur di langgar dan kadang-kadang di kediaman gurunya H Naipan. Ini sesuai dengan tekadnya tidak akan pulang sebelum berhasil menemukan hasil jualan kambing. Dia merasa bersalah kepada orangtuanya. Dengan tekadnya itu, dia makin memperdalam ilmu maen pukulan dan ilmu tarekat. Ilmu pukulannya bernama aliran syahbandar. Kemudian Pitung melakukan meditasi alias tapa dengan tahapan berpuasa 40 hari. Kemudian melakukan ngumbara atau perjalanan guna menguji ilmunya. Ngumbara dilakukan ke tempat-tempat yang ‘menyeramkan’ yang pasti akan berhadapan dengan begal.

Salah satu ilmu kesaktian yang dipelajari Bang Pitung disebut Rawa Rontek. Gabungan antara tarekat Islam dan jampe-jampe Betawi. Dengan menguasai ilmu ini Bang Pitung dapat menyerap energi lawan-lawannya. Seolah-olah lawan-lawannya itu tidak melihat keberadaan Bang Pitung. Karena itu dia digambarkan seolah-olah dapat menghilang. Menurut cerita rakyat, dengan ilmu kesaktian rawa rontek-nya itu, Bang Pitung tidak boleh menikah. Karena sampai hayatnya ketika ia tewas dalam menjelang usia 40 tahun Pitung masih tetap bujangan.

Sejauh ini, tokoh legendaris si Pitung dilukiskan sebagai pahlawan yang gagah. Pemuda bertubuh kuat dan keren, sehingga menimbulkan rasa sungkan setiap orang yang berhadapan dengannya. Dalam film Si Pitung yang diperankan oleh Dicky Zulkarnaen, ia juga dilukiskan sebagai pemuda yang gagah dan bertubuh kekar. Tapi, menurut Tanu Trh dalam ‘Intisari’ melukiskan berdasarkan penuturan ibunya dari cerita kakeknya, Pitung tidak sebesar dan segagah itu. ”Perawakannya kecil. Tampang si Pitung sama sekali tidak menarik perhatian khalayak. Sikapnya pun tidak seperti jagoan. Kulit wajahnya kehitam-hitaman, dengan ciri yang khas sepasang cambang panjang tipis, dengan ujung melingkar ke depan.”

Menurut Tanu Trh, ketika berkunjung ke rumah kakeknya berdasarkan penuturan ibunya, Pitung pernah digerebek oleh schout van Hinne. Setelah seluruh isi rumah diperiksa ternyata petinggi polisi Belanda ini tidak menemukan si Pitung. Setelah van Hinne pergi, barulah si Pitung secara tiba-tiba muncul setelah bersembunyi di dapur. Karena belasan kali berhasil meloloskan diri dari incaran Belanda, tidak heran kalau si Pitung diyakini banyak orang memiliki ilmu menghilang. ”Yang pasti,” kata ibu, seperti dituturkan Tanu Trh, ”dengan tubuhnya yang kecil Pitung sangat pandai menyembunyikan diri dan bisa menyelinap di sudut-sudut yang terlalu sempit bagi orang-orang lain.” Sedang kalau ia dapat membuat dirinya tidak tampak di mata orang, ada yang meyakini karena ia memiliki kesaksian ‘ilmu rontek’.

Sumber: http://alwishahab.wordpress.com


Sunday, February 1, 2009

Wolverine's Story

Born the second son of wealthy landowners John and Elizabeth Howlett in Alberta, Canada during the late 19th Century, James Howlett was a frail boy of poor health. James was largely neglected by his mother, who was institutionalized for a time following the death of her first son, John Jr., in 1897. He spent most of his early years on the estate grounds and had two playmates that lived on the Howlett estate with him: Rose, a red-headed girl who was brought in from town to be a companion to young James, and a boy nicknamed "Dog" who was the son of the groundskeeper, Thomas Logan. Thomas Logan was an alcoholic and was extremely abusive to his son. The children were close friends but as they reached young adulthood, the abuse inflicted upon Dog warped his mind. His actions would lead to a tragic chain of events. that started as the three neared their adolescent years when Dog made unwanted advances toward Rose and James reported it to his father. In retaliation Dog killed James's pet dog. This in turn resulted in the expulsion of Thomas Logan and Dog Logan from the estate.

Thomas Logan, in a drunken stupor, invaded the Howlett estate with his son and attempted to take Elizabeth Howlett (implied to be his former lover) with him. John attempted to stop him and Thomas Logan shot him down in cold blood. James Howlett had just entered the room when this occurred and for the first time his mutation manifested; his claws extended from the backs of his hands and he attacked the intruders with uncharacteristic ferocity, killing Thomas Logan, and scarring Dog's face with three claw marks. Elizabeth Howlett, who was already an emotionally disturbed woman, took her life immediately afterward with a blast from Thomas's gun. Fearing for their safety, Rose fled the estate with James, who appeared to have been deeply traumatized and had somehow repressed or forgotten most of the memories of life back at the estate. Dog falsely reported to the police and James's grandfather that Rose had murdered John Howlett II and Thomas Logan. The eldest Howlett, shunned James and with no family left, took Dog in as his ward. However, Dog was already a burgeoning psychopath and it was too late for his character to evolve down any other path. In the years that followed, James and Rose took refuge in a British Colombia mining colony under the guise of being cousins. James also assumed the name of "Logan" in order to hide his identity. As the hard work of mining toughened his body, and his mutant powers developed, he grew to be unusually strong and ferocious. He was immune to the elements and even ran with the wolves in the forest, learning to hunt as an animal hunts. "Logan" became a valuable and admirable figure amongst the small community of miners due to his hard work and strong ethics, earning him the respect of his peers, including the foreman Smitty, who became a surrogate father figure to James. During this period, James developed strong feelings for Rose, but could not act on them for the sake of their guise as cousins. Smitty, who had been mentoring James all these years, had also grown close to Rose, and the two eventually fell in love and became engaged, much to the scorn and surprise of James, who later accepted the situation for the sake of Rose's happiness. Meanwhile, the elder John Howlett was in failing health and asked Dog to find Rose and his grandson so he could make peace with them before he died. Dog agreed. However, Dog (who has become a physically formidable man himself) decides to track them down so he can kill James.

Dog hunted James and Rose down so easily that it seemed he had a preternatural skill for tracking. On then night that Smitty was due to leave the mining town with Rose, Dog (who bears an uncanny resemblance to Logan's future nemesis, Sabretooth) finally found and confronted James. Dog reminded James of his past, and that faithful night back on the estate that had changed all their lives so. The two fiercely fought in the middle of the street and despite being the physically stronger of the two Dog was eventually overpowered by the enraged James. As Dog laid unconscious, James unsheathed his claws for the first time in public, to the shock of everyone watching, and was about to deal the deathblow until Rose leapt in to stop him but was accidentally was impaled by his claws. Horrified, "Logan" held her in his arms as she died. He then fled into the woods where he lived in self-imposed exile with a pack of wolves, presumably for many years. Logan possesses memories of being a Samurai in Japan, a mercenary operative for the Central Intelligence Agency, and a "wild man" in the Canadian wilderness. Due to extensive memory implants given to Logan through the Weapon X program, any or all of these memories are suspect. Logan has at least one memory of meeting Captain America (Steve Rogers) in World War II while he was in the Canadian Army which has been verified as true. Sometime after World War II, Logan was taken by a group of scientists led by Dr. Cornelius as part of the Weapon X program. Cornelius was hired to perfect and use a technique that would bond the indestructible element adamantium to human bone cells. Logan's skeleton was bonded to the adamantium, and he was indoctrinated into the Weapon X assassin program.

Wolverine was conscripted by Department H, and for his first mission was sent against the incredible Hulk. Wolverine was subsequently approached by Professor Charles Xavier, who was looking for mutants to help his students, the X-Men, escape from the island-being known as Krakoa, which had captured them. Wolverine left Alpha Flight to accompany Xavier and rescue the captured X-Men. After Krakoa was defeated, Wolverine decided to stay with the X-Men, for reasons which included that he had fallen for Marvel Girl (Jean Grey). Logan remained with the X-Men for quite some time, at one time being their field commander, and encountered adversaries such as Proteus (Kevin MacTaggart), Magneto (Magnus), the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, the Brood, the Reavers, demons from the dimension of Limbo, the Marauders, the Morlocks, and even Dracula on one occasion. After his encounter with the mutant assassin Omega Red, Logan began to question the memories he possessed, but his searches to find his true identity and memories proved fruitless. During an encounter with the mutant Magneto on his space station called Avalon, Wolverine slashed Magneto with his claws. Magneto retaliated, using his powers of the magnetic field to tear the adamantium out of Wolverine's skeleton, causing extensive injuries. These injuries shorted out Wolverine's healing factor for a time, and Logan also discovered that the claws that he believed a result of the Weapon X project were in fact part of his actual bone structure due to his mutation. These bone claws became Wolverine's main weapons until his skeleton later became grafted to adamantium again.

As a result of his injuries, Logan left the X-Men for a time. He visited Muir Island at the request of Kitty Pryde, and was also attacked by Cyber. During the Phalanx invasion, Logan and Cable were asked by Charles Xavier to find and rescue the captured X-Men. They joined with Cyclops (Scott Summers) and Jean Grey returning from their honeymoon (and secretly the future) and freed their teammates in Tibet. Later, Logan was kidnapped by Tyler Dayspring, calling himself Genesis, who wanted to make Wolverine one of his new Horsemen. Genesis had acquired adamantium by destroying the body of the mercenary known as Cyber, and had planned to recreate the bonding process used on Logan years ago. This time, however, Logan's body rejected the adamantium, and he regressed for a time to a feral-like state.

Logan regained his lucidity and rejoined the X-Men. Logan was subsequently kidnapped by the would-be conqueror Apocalypse (En Sabah Nur) and forced to fight the savage assassin Sabretooth for the mantle of the Horseman Death. Knowing that he might be able to resist Apocalypse's programming and that Sabretooth would be a very dangerous villain with the support of Apocalypse, Logan fought and defeated his nemesis. As a result, his skeleton again was laced with Adamantium. Under the control of Apocalypse, Wolverine fought the X-Men ferociously in his Death persona. But with the help of his teammates, he eventually broke free from Apocalypse's control.

While on the Weapon Plus satellite, Logan was able to access detailed files on his past. However, it was a trap, and only Jean's manifestation of the Phoenix was able to save them. Wolverine greatly mourns Jean's loss, was not pleased with Cyclops and Emma Frost's relationship, but has remained a valued member of the X-Men, serving on as many missions as he can while also doing solo operations.
Wolverine was ambushed by the Hand and Hydra. Transformed into a killing machine and outfitted with several devices, he battled various other heroes and killed both Hornet and Northstar. S.H.I.E.L.D. was eventually able to deprogram Logan, and he was sent to oppose Northstar, who also had been resurrected by Hydra. While on a mission in the Savage Land, he met the recently reformed Avengers and eventually accepted membership. Recently, Wolverine unnerved many high level officials, including those of S.H.I.E.L.D., by his sporadic movements in and out of the grid, with the tensions mounting in what seemed to be Wolverine's attempted assassination of the prime minister of Japan. Eventually it was revealed that Wolverine's true target was not the prime minister, but his bodyguard, the Silver Samurai. During an interrogation that began during their battle, and ended shortly after Logan severed the samurai's arm, Wolverine received some more information that led him back to Department H. Despite what he had originally thought, it was not the carelessness of his captors that allowed him to escape; rather, the Winter Soldier seemingly interfered with the operation in such a way that allowed Logan's escape. Wolverine tracked down the Winter Soldier in Serbia for information, but was rendered unconscious after a struggle after which the Winter Soldier revealed that he had earlier murdered Logan's pregnant wife.

Originally Posted by: www.marvel.com